February 2022, Issue 2 (812)



Herbert Leopold GABRYŚ
Power industry in Poland 2022 – present situation and what awaits us in future, selected from forecasts and results

Offshore oil and gas mining.
Short and subjective overview of its history



Numerical modelling and optimization of innovative hydrogen systems

Tools for the energy transition – options for measuring progress towards climate neutrality



New generation of switchgears from Schneider Electric.
In SM AirSeT the SF6 gas was replaced by clean air



China – a big country with even bigger problems



Bogumił DUDEK
SEP in Tarnów



Herbert Leopold Gabryś

Power industry in Poland 2022 – present situation and what awaits us in future, selected from forecasts and results
Presented is the energy balance for the year 2021 in comparisons with the year 2020. Stated is, among the others, that the electric energy consumption in our country grew up during the last year. Export reached the heights from years ago and import significantly decreased. Domestic power generation substantially increased and – what’s more – from coal and on the scale that has not been observed for a long time. From the presented in this article the latest World Enegy Outlook 2021 report shawn by the IEA in Paris in December 2021 and especially the STEPS (Stated Policies Scenario) it follows that gas trading reminded of its striking power in the geopolitical game of potentates. On a different scale in various parts of the world. And the hunger for electric energy from the world’s economies forced reaching for solid fuels generation, mainly from coal. Because the potential of coal sources – first of all in installed capacities – is still indispensable to protect unstable but dynamically growing RES generation. The world’s economy tries to return to the state from before the pandemic. Prices of fuels and electric energy knock down many industries. And on the horizon one can see a threat of a military conflict on our eastern border.
Keywords: power industry in Poland, energy balance for the year 2021, return to solid fuels generation


Marek Krzyształowicz
Offshore oil and gas mining. Short and subjective overview of its history
Described are methods of offshore oil and gas exploration together with methods of drilling. An accent is put on the fact that the oil and gas deposit discovery is only the beginning of the further operation. Explained is how the search is performed and how the assessment of an oil field size and the volume of the raw material that can be obtained is made as well as how to safely transport it to the nearest refining plant. Listed and characterised are offshore floating installations i.e. drilling and production platforms, semisubmersible platforms, drillships, crude oil tankers, special tankers and stand-by vessels.
Keywords: offshore oil and gas mining, methods of oil and gas exploration, offshore floating installations


Andrzej Kochaniewicz, Rafał Czekalski, Robert Cholewa
Numerical modelling and optimization of innovative hydrogen systems
The paper describes the process of numerical modelling of a hydrogen-based cogeneration system powered mainly by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). In the future, the cogeneration system modelled in the IT environment, as a demonstration installation, will supply heat to the selected group of consumers and produce electricity to be sold to the electric power grid. The numerical modelling comprises the construction, integration and optimization of operation of particular process components including an electrolyzer, hydrogen storage, an internal combustion gas engine, pit thermal energy storage and a natural gas boiler. The numerical modelling process uses the dedicated TRNSYS software. The paper presents the first phase of research and development activities currently carried out by „Energopomiar” Sp. z o.o. as part of the project, ‘A combined heat and power plant in the local energy system’, co-financed by the National Centre for Research and Development.
Keywords: numerical modelling, cogeneration system, combined heat and power plant, RES, hydrogen storage, pit thermal energy storage


Tomasz Słupik
Tools for the energy transition – options for measuring progress towards climate neutrality
The energy transition is gaining pace and its accompanying macroeconomic aspects in the form of energy commodity prices and CO2 emission allowances make it remarkably difficult to analyze scenarios for both the transition period and the target state. In accordance with the EU policy, the pursuit of climate neutrality requires undertaking measures related to low and zero carbon technologies, renewable energy, a circular economy and energy efficiency. They are successively described by new legal acts so as to establish an appropriate legal framework to support a gradual phasing out of fossil fuels. In the era of digitalization running parallel to the energy transition, new methods and IT tools are created to enable systematic reporting on progress towards climate neutrality. They are also designed to support the optimization of industrial processes. The paper briefly describes a modular structure of the IT system developed by „Energopomiar” Sp. z o.o. to support operators of power and industrial installations. The examples presented here relate to the implementation of TKE® (Technical Control of Operation) Systems operated at the majority of power units of the Polish Power System and also SAI (Engineering Analysis System) which is more commonly used in industry.
Keywords: energy transition, climate neutrality, circular economy, energy efficiency, environmental footprint, carbon footprint, water footprint, thermo-ecological cost evaluation, Engineering Analysis System, sustainable development


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